RES701 – Research Methods Reflection

RES701 – Research methods was an amazing course in the journey of NMIT college life. This course is specially designed to lay foundation to the research skills of one student by allowing them to do various tasks such as assesements. This course help me to understand the various aspects of research method and I believe this will be very useful for my future studies as well as professional field also. The course helps me to think critically and to analyze the nature of research topic considering the ethical side also. I was able to understand the basic consepts of doing research and the basic principles to follow inorder to attain the solution for a specific research question.

Those who are doing education related to any area I suggest them to do Research Method as one of the main papaer and thus they will be able to do their final project as best they can and also it will help in the career development.

Thank you Lars for your valuable sessions.

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RES701, Week 12, Excercise: Ethical Behaviour

1. You find some good images on the web that would look good on your site. You copy and paste them to you blog

On the front end context we can say that using someone else’s property without their permission is unethical. But for the above case we cannot argue that it is unethical unless we know about the type of images used. Some images that is available in the internet may contain digital license which is then used only by the given permission. But there are also other images which is allowed to use freely without having any license. Using the images which has copyright is not acceptable. So better to use websites that provide free contents.

2. You are in a hurry to finish an assignment and you find the perfect explanation of a difficult concept on Wikipedia. you decide to copy it into your work.

Taking data from Wikipedia cannot be related with any ethical issues since the data provided in the Wikipedia webpage comes under Creative Commons Attribution -ShareAlike License which allows any one can share and adapt. But it is suggestable to read all the way and try to use our own understanding to express what we learned or what we are looking. Even if you used any related information, try to APA reference it for better understanding of the data and credibility of your work.

3. You are a medical researcher and you think you have discovered a new drug that cures lung cancer.  It worked well on mice although a few of them died of heart problems. You want to test it on people.  You recruit 100 lung cancer patients into your treatment programme. You don’t tell them about the new drug.  You treat 50 patients with usual drugs and 50 with the new drug to see which is better.

This is unethical from the perspective of a medical researcher since the researcher knew what are all the defectiveness because of this. At same time from the patients side it is related to moral because of that he researcher is not informed the patients about the defects. To avoid such situations it is essential to inform the patients about what is going to happen or what are all the defects of using the drugs which need to use. It is patient’s right to know and it is the responsibility of health assistants or hospital to make the patients know about it.

4. You are doing your PhD about drug abuse among students.  You interview 30 students about their drug use. You discover that one of the students is actually a fairly big time dealer and you report him to the police.

This is something related to moral. Even the interview is confidential as a part of your studies but morally it is best to consider the danger behind this and it would be appropriate to inform the responsible authorities to take action. Hence while doing such activities as a part of studies it is better to make agreements that does not violate any moral values. In this situation Privacy and Confidentiality terms violates as we inform the authorities but considering the moral side we cannot act like we should not inform.

5. You are a researcher looking at the effect of violent computer games on children.  You recruit 20 children into your study. Over a month you regularly show them images of violence to see if it has an adverse effect on their behaviour.  One of the children becomes quite distressed each time and so you stop showing her images and drop her from the study.

This is unethical, at the same no researchers are allowed to do something which cause harmful effects on the children. Doing research is not to harm anyone and thus the activities involved in the research should be also the same.

6. You want to research how easy it is to hack into your organisation’s computer system by persuading people to divulge login and password details.  You recruit a small team to ring up key people in the organisation and persuade them to give either their own or their boss’s details.

This can be considered both ethical as well as unethical. If the research is well based to find the security flaws in the system and if the team knew what they are doing and also if it is based on the legitimate permission from the organization side then it is ethical. At the same time none of the above criteria is considered while conducting such a research then it is definitely unethical.

7. You are doing an initial research in area of a town where may bars and pubs are located, to estimate the level of problematic social behaviour in the area. your research is independent from the police, because you want to observe their behaviour as well. You observe both abusive and violent behaviour.

This is related to both ethical and moral values. Doing research by observing others without their permission is unethical, but at the same time considering the moral values the outcome or the study result of this research will effect the society with new information which may help them to think again which may help to update themselves. It is better to keep boundaries to keep ourselves safe as well as others.

RES701, Week 10, Peer Review – Possible Research Interest of Hao

As the technology emerges to new extension, new developments in the area of User Interface is happening, more and more reliable flexible efficient frameworks are developing. Since user interface is very important in the interaction of users and the system the technology also has more impact in the design.

Since Hao is very much interested in the development of Front end, his research interest should be in the same field. As a part of research and studying new technology he choose React JS as his research topic and it fits him for his experience and knowledge in the field. React JS is one of the extensive javascript library maintained by Facebook and a community of individual developers and companies. The impact of this topic will be very helpful for the future development projects and career. It would be very interesting to know what he gonna do with his topic. Definitely it is a User Interface but really interested to know about its appearance.

Now a days various web developers are using this javascript library to develop the user interface of their web applications. Using React JS the mapping of data to the DOM can be made efficient and powerful for showing heavy resources.



RES701, Week 9, Research Interest – AngularJs

Web application development is becoming more prominent careers today since these application can be operated from anywhere without considering the system requirements. There are lot of web technologies which developers can choose and work according to the requirements they had. Since the popularity of these are increasing it is the duty of designers and developers that the web applications that they developed is scalable and maintainable. Hence it is essential to choose which technology to use to make this possible. There are lot of technologies available for the development process.

AngularJS is one of the most popular framework purely for the development of front-end side of we applications. Due to it’s feature it is becoming more popular and widely used framework. It is basically a framework to build large scale and high performance web application which can maintain and scale easily according to the needs. It is powerful JavaScript based development framework to create RICH internet Applications.

Basic Architecture of AngularJS

This framework is developed and maintained by Google. According to them AngularJS can describe as “What HTML would have been, has it been suggested for building web-apps”. It is very interesting the way the framework is designed and it architecture is fascinating. Due to its structured architecture the developers are able to create the client side more structures and organized. The implementation of 2 way binding using AngularJS happens to be the more effective system for Single Page Applications. The dependency injection process made simple and hence the developer need not to worry about it. It offers light-weight interaction between client and server side communication. It follows Model View Controller architecture to interact with the back-end technology.

For the final Assignment of Research Methods I though It better to consider about which is related to the technology and which matters to my further education and career. Hence I choose AngularJS to be the research topic. The research will mainly focusing on the architecture of the framework and how it binds data together so the it wont effect the performance of the system. It is also important to know in depth knowledge of Dependency Injection in AngularJS. Moving to the development process using AngularJS it is essential to know about how to use the components and how the data is mapped to it. Through out the research the important libraries of framework will become a part of study.

The final outcome of this research is the submission of an Academic Article named “AngularJS : Architecture and Development Analysis”. The knowledge that I gain from this research will be a important factor for my Graduation Project which I decided to make use of this framework.

RES701, Week 8, Virtual Reality & Applications

Virtual reality can be explained as the experience taking to a similar or different real world environment which is a computer generated reality. The environment is non-physical world which developed with the proper usage of software and hardware. The hardware are the entity that makes the environment real. The connection between human and system is made possible by using the human-computer interfaces. Computer graphics plays a vital role to make the environment feels like a real concept.
Virtual reality gains its attention during early 1990s which was a success in the field of entertainment. Now in the present state the application of virtual reality goes beyond entertainment. It becomes a very helpful concept in the field of Automobile, Education and Healthcare. The concept of VR is a challenging to tackle the presence of designing VR systems that really transport humans to a new world with an acceptable sense of presence. The extreme usage of VR is applied in the games where the players plays like in the real world.
In-order to support the development giant companies such as Apple, Google etc have their own kits like ARKit, Daydream, google cardboard etc. After years of experimentation the development of VR is not getting viable, still more to go. There are lot of business and technical challenges which VR is facing. Latency in drawing, spherical sound design, cost and streaming and compatibility with hardware are some of the most faced technical challenges.
The application of VR in the field of medical care is very impressive. The amputees are using VR to get rid of phantom pains.In Sweden in the Chalmers University of Technology, the experiment was conducted. Patient with an amputated hand could see how he was driving a car in the virtual reality. The motion sensors have been hooked up to his limb. His brain got the visual confirmation that his amputated hand was moving and reacting on movement. The intensity and frequency of pain have decreased after the experiment.

RES701, Week 7, Whose blog is most useful to other students?

When I start to experience NMIT I felt everything is different from my previous experience back in India. Here interactive way of studying is promoted by giving practical knowledge where the students are practiced having research capacity so that in future studies or career it will make an impact on how you perform on various tasks. So, when I start my works here at NMIT I felt blank on how to start; I have no idea where to start. I asked Jake one of my classmate in Software development and he gave me a small idea on how to approach works and all (Thank you bro..).  When getting works most often I won’t take my classmate’s blog so seriously since the data in the blog is the reflection of that person. So, in my blog I want my reflection, for that I tried my best to research online and tried to learn about the topic and wrote in my own words. But I do check some blogs just to confirm I am doing right since those guys have more experience here.  

For the RES701 I mostly prefer the blog of Erica and Milton. Erica’s blog is short and precise, at the same time in the case of Milton, he writes a lot, but it does helps me. Milton already completed RES701 and it helps me a lot while doing my APA reference and for some topics when I got confused what to write really.

RES701, Week 7, What interests me about IT and what doesn’t?

The IT area/subject I have most enjoyed is the back-end implementation of web applications and API response implementation.

The IT area/subject I least enjoyed was the study and implementation of graphical user interface for applications. 

The IT area/subject I was most interested in was manipulating and re-designing of web pages using Adobe Dreamweaver. 

The one IT thing I never want to have to do again is the implementation of GUI design (I know It is very important in the implementation of systems) 

I chose to study IT because I can think whatever and can discuss with my team and further, we can implement it together.

If I couldn’t study IT, I would study supply chain management and logistics. 

When I was a kid, I wanted to be an aeronautical engineer 

One IT thing I would like to know more about is the way the bio medical engineers implement systems that helps doctors. 

RES701, Week 6, Exercise Reading Article

For the reading exercise, I choose the article “Digital Rights Management System Based on Cloud”. The article abstract was succeeded to mention the basic questions which need to be answered in it such as What the article topic is, What the author did and what the author concluded? In the article, the author tried to explain the propose of DRM system based on cloud and concluded that it will take advantage of cloud infrastructure which further speed up the watermarking process and thus the system will be more modular and scalable. The author is a student/tutor at the University of Sannio – Department of Engineering and the article is published in the journal TELKOMNIKA (Telecommunication, Computing, Electronics and Control) which is peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the University of Ahmad Dahlan in collaboration with Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All the articles published here are peer-reviewed by the experts of the same fields. Hence the article is credible to those who want to know about the DRM system based on the cloud. In the Conclusion part, the author mentioned the current issue of Digital contents and the proposed DRM system will be best suited for the Web Context. The author is also trying to say that since the proposed DRM system is based on cloud environment and hence the proposed DRM system can take advantage of the cloud infrastructure to speed up the process resulting modular and scalable DRM system. I am convinced with the explained system since the author succeeded almost to consider every detail of it.

  1. What is Digital Copyright protection?

Digital Copyright protection means a way of protecting the digital content from illegal copying of it. Since the usage of digital content is high the usage of illegal content is also increasing. In order to avoid the copying of someone else’s work (such as software, audio, video, digital documents) it is essential to create digital signatures. The way of creating and managing of such signatures are termed as Digital Copyright protection.

2. What is DRM?

Digital Rights Management which shortly known as DRM is a set of schemes that allow sellers of digital media files to associate those files with a license. This license will have certain constraints on the buyers for what they can do and what cannot according to the type of license the buyer purchased. 

A short description based on the above article: 

The article describes the copyright protection, need in the current digital environment and a DRM system based on a watermarking protocol to ensure copyright protection to the digital contents from the duplications of a valid license and gaining outlawed access to the proprietary contents. The digital contents such as audio or video files are becoming easily accessible thanks to the provision of assorted digital devices with low price and by every year the standard and performance of broadband connection with low-cost expense are increasing. Thus, the web users are a lot into the utilization of digital content and the need to protect the creativity and to reduce the cost of production and distribution the content providers should be able to sell as many products they can. For this, it is required to initiate certain legal measure, coerce mechanisms and digital techniques to enforce the protection of copyrighted contents. This ensures the fair use of contents and minimizes privacy conflicts while managing copyright protection. For this, a DRM system based on the watermarking protocol is proposed with the execution of the same in a cloud environment. The cloud environment makes the system more flexible and scalable. The proposed DRM system is using a watermarking protocol which enable the user with valid license only can open or use the digital content. The proposed DRM system is buyer friendly and involves 3 web entities. First one is the buyer, the second one is the content provider (CP – holds the digital rights) and the last Registration Authority (RA – to identify the buyer, the CO and the purchase content & transaction). In this environment of buyer and seller, both must insert the watermark and if any unauthorized parties tried to have the content the watermark detection and extraction algorithm will find who has legal and illegal ownership and will trace back to the illegal user (Chang & Chung, 2003). 

References:

  1. Chin-Chen, C., & Chi-Yien. C. (2003). An enhanced buyer seller watermarking protocol. International Conference on Communication Technology Proceedings. 


RES701, Week 4, Case Study Research Method

Research Methodology

Research methodology can be defined as a practice of collecting information and data in order to make certain business decisions. It may include research publications, interviews, surveys and other research techniques. This information may consist of both present and past information which are relevant to make decisions.

Case study Research Methodology

According to Wikipedia ‘A case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its relate contextual conditions.’ Simple a Case study is a qualitative research methodology which help us to acquire in-depth knowledge upon trying to study a topic or trying to find one conclusion. Case studies can be done by an individual or a group of individuals to explore the causes of underlying principles. It is commonly used to answer questions such as how or why?, since researchers have little or no control over the events.

Case study

How it works?

Case studies involves detailed information which can be acquired from various data sources, which includes interviews, first-hand observation, surveys and document reviews. Following are the most commonly used elements in a case study:

  • Circumstances – Explains the background
  • Details regarding the situation before the case began.
  • Activities – What was done?
  • Results – Information on achievement or progress.
  • Complications – Stuff that limited and challenged.
  • Analysis – Interpretation and explanation
  • View of people.
  • Lessons – Summarizing what was learnt.

In 1995 Stake has proposed a series of necessary steps for case method where more emphasis on a naturalistic approach, importance of the philosophical underpinnings and contexts. Developing a protocol will act as a frame of operation and following list illustrates a common case study protocol that guides the researcher’s methodology.

Case Study protocol

Basically, there exist two kinds of case studies

  1. Problem Solving Case Study
  2. Descriptive Case study

Advantages/Strengths of Case study

  1. Intensive study 
  2. Provide a way to produce rich, in-depth data 
  3. They can bring work to life by providing real-world stories and examples
  4. Reasons given for progress and change come from a range of different sources 
  5. Developing new research to test conditions 
  6. Contradicting established ideas or theories 
  7. Giving new Insight 

Weakness/Limitations of Case study

  1. Inability to replicate 
  2. Researcher bias – Cannot necessarily be generalized 
  3. Usually, require significant input from a range of sources and groups that may or may not be easily accessed and willing to participate
  4. Depending on data sources, it can be difficult to draw a definite cause/effect from case studies
  5. No Classification 
  6. Time intensive 
  7. Possibility of errors 
  8. Ethical Issues 
History of Case study methodology

Philosophical Orientation

Each of the existing methodologies is aligned with specific philosophical positions which help the researchers to guide the research. In the case of Case Study, it has a practical versatility in its approach. According to Rosenberg and Yates, ‘it is not assigned to a fixed ontological, epistemological or methodological position’ (Rosenberg & Yates, 2007). According to the researcher, there is one single reality which is independent to the individual and thus case study can be oriented from a realist or positivist perspective. This single reality can be apprehended, studied and measured through a relativist or interpretative perspective. The perspective of a relativist or interpretive depends on the premises which have multiple realities and meanings. This philosophical versatility helps the researcher to decide the methodological orientation that can be used in the conduct of the case study.

Denzin and Lincoln summarize the characteristics of qualitative research into the following 5 key attributes:

  1. Reducing the use of positivist or post-positivist perspectives
  2. Accepting the postmodern sensibilities
  3. Capturing the individual’s point of view
  4. Examining the constraints of everyday life
  5. Securing rich descriptions

What kinds of questions/problems might be useful for a case study?

The basic thing the researcher needs to take care of is to understand the case thoroughly so that the researcher will have a correct idea on what it is and how to analyze it? The researcher needs to analyze the case so that he will be able to pinpoint at-least 5 key problems which need to be research on it.
The key problems should have a logical base and need to research on it deeply. For most instance, each key problem will have multiple solutions which again needs to analyze to find the best possible solution. Finding this best possible solution will have our own experiences, discussions and research which need to be done with various outsiders which we think they can help. These outsource can be humans or trusted sources where the data we get is legible and trustworthy.

There exists 4 possible case study questions

  1. Estimation questions
  2. Actual or Theoretical Client questions
  3. Brain Teaser questions
  4. Graphics Interpretation questions

Case Study in Information Technology

There exist various phases that could be followed for a case study approach in Information Technology which explains different research options and data. We can use case study as a key purpose to analyze the impact of certain IT products on customers. One of the most commonly applied case is like when we want to know the marketing strategies and digital marketing options for IT products. Following steps can be used while doing case studies for IT.

  1. Focus on key concepts
  2. Case study as Research Strategy
  3. Collecting relevant data
  4. Analyzing possible solutions
  5. Finalizing the solutions
Uber case study

References:

  1. http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/2655/4079
  2. http://whatworks.org.nz/methods-tools-and-techniques/case-studies/
  3. https://coschedule.com/blog/how-to-write-a-case-study-examples-templates/
  4. https://www.wikijob.co.uk/content/interview-advice/interview-questions/brain-teaser-questions
  5. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.135.1100&rep=rep1&type=pdf